THE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN DHAKA (BANGLADESH) URBAN AREA: A GENDER PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:Environmental crisis, Awareness, Bio-diversity, Gender, Urban Dhaka
Growth efforts and the growing population have been creating an adverse impact on our bio-diversity therefore human health is at higher risk, and human civilization came closer to a severe Environmental crisis. Impacts of environmental degradation especially of air and water pollution have been severe and challenging in Bangladesh, and generally, city dwellers face higher pollution levels than rural residents in their everyday lives. The broad aim of this study is to assess the environmental awareness level of the population of Dhaka city. Based on both primary and secondary data, the study reveals a huge lack of awareness of environmental challenges and the necessity of handling these concerns with appropriate initiatives. Gender perspective reveals women’s potential areas of contribution to handling environmental challenges. Both men and women need to be brought under strategic environmental awareness and education programs for sustainable and healthy urban life in Bangladesh, the study concludes.
AJZEN, I. From Intentions to Action: A Theory of Planned Behavior. KUHL, J.; BECKMANN, J. eds. Action- Control: From Cognition to Behavior, 1985. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 11-39, 1985. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2
ADOMSSENT, M. Exploring universities transformative potential for sustainability bond learning in changing landscapes of knowledge communication. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 49, p. 11-24, 2013. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.021
AHSAN, T.; ZAMAN, A, U. Household Waste Management in High-Rise Residential Building in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Users' Perspective. International Journal of Waste Resources, v. 4 n. 1-7, 2014. Available from: https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:53687445. Accessed on: 03 Jan. 2023.
ALAM, M. Z.; MAMUN, A. A. Dynamics of internal migration in Bangladesh: Trends, patterns, determinants, and causes. PLoS ONE, v. 17, n. 2, e0263878, 2022. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263878. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263878
ASIA FOUNDATION. A Situation Analysis of Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2012. Available from: https://innovation.brac.net/fif2016/images/library/SituationAnalysisofCCinitiatives.pdf. Accessed on: 13 Feb. 2023.
Air Quality Index (AQI). 2023. Available from: https://www.iqair.com/bangladesh. Accessed on: 12 Jan. 2023.
BANGLADESH CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN, Ministry of Information, Press Institute of Bangladesh, 2009. Available from: https://policy.asiapacificenergy.org/sites/default/files/Bangladesh%20Climate%20Change%20Strategy%20and%20Action%20Plan%202009.pdf. Accessed on: 17 Jan. 2023.
BERNHARD, M.C.; EVANS, M.B.; KENT, S.T.; JOHNSON, E.; THREADGILL, S.L.; TYSON, S.; Becker, S.M.; GOHLKE, J.M. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: A study of rural versus urban communities. Public Health, v. 127, n. 11, p. 994–1004, 2013. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe. 2013.08.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.08.005
CHENYANG, X.; AARON, M.C. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Revisiting the Institutional Trust Hypothesis in the USA. Environment and Behavior, v. 47, n. 1, p. 17-37, 2015. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916513491571. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916513491571
EZEAH, C.; ROBERTS, L. C. Analysis of barriers and success factors affecting the adoption of sustainable management of municipal solid waste in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 103, p. 9-14, 2012. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.027
FOF (FRIDAYS FOR FUTURE). 2020. Available from: https://fridaysforfuture.org. Accessed on: 10 Jan. 2023.
GIOLITTO, P. Environmental Education in the European Union. 1997. Editor, Contributor, European Commission. Available from: https://books.google.com.bd/books/about/Environmental_Education_in_the_European.html?id=D-n8nQEACAAJ&redir_esc=y. Accessed on: 22 Jan. 2023.
GOB (GOVERNMENT OF BANGLADESH) -GoB (2012), Rio + 20: May 2012 National Report on Sustainable Development, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Peoples Republic of Bangladesh Secretariat, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Available from: https://docplayer.net/21736008-Bangladesh-rio-20-national-report-on-sustainable-development.html. Accessed on: 10 Jan. 2023.
HOBSON, K. Competing discourses of sustainable consumption: does the ‘rationalization of lifestyles’ make sense? Environmental Politics, v. 11, p. 95–120, 2002. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/714000601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/714000601
HAIL, F.I.; ALI, M.A. A Study on Solid Waste Management System of Dhaka City Corporation: Effect of Composting and Landfill Location. UAP Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, v. 1, n. 1, p.18-26, 2005. Available from: https://www.uap-bd.edu/ce/journal/Journal1/04.Faisalf.pdf. Accessed on: 23 Jan. 2023.
KEMPER, K.; FAN, Q. Clean and Green Bangladesh: A goal that can be achieved, World Bank Blogs. 2018. Available from: https://blogs.worldbank.org/endpovertyinsouthasia/clean-and-green-bangladesh-goal-can-be-achieved. Accessed on: 11 Feb. 2023.
LEE, T.M.; MARKOWITZ, E.M.; HOWE, P.D.; KO, C.Y.; LEISEROWITZ, A.A. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world. Nature Climate Change, v.5, p.1014-1020, 2015. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2728
LEISEROWITZ, A. Communicating the risks of global warming: American risk perceptions, affective images, and interpretive communities. MOSER, S. C.; DILLING, L. eds. Creating a climate for change: Communicating climate change and facilitating social change, p. 44–63, 2007. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535871.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535871.005
LEONE, C. A review: EAGLY, A. H.; CHAIKEN, S. The psychology of attitudes. New York: Harcourt,1985.Psychology and Marketing , v.12, p. 459-466, 1993. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258879638_A_review_Eagly_A_H_Chaiken_S_1993_The_psychology_of_attitudes_New_York_Harcourt_Brace_Janovich. Accessed on: 18 Jan. 2023.
LUTHANS, F. Organizational Behavior: an evidence-based approach. 12. ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, p. 594, 2011. Available from: https://bdpad.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/fred-luthans-organizational-behavior-_-an-evidence-based-approach-twelfth-edition-mcgraw-hill_irwin-2010.pdf. Accessed on: 10 Feb. 2023.
MATTER, A.; DIETSCHI, M.; ZURBRUGG, C. Improving the informal recycling sector through segregation of waste in the household: The case of Dhaka Bangladesh. Habitat International, v. 38, p. 150-156, 2013. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2012.06.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2012.06.001
MARANZANO, P.; ASCARI, R.; CHIODINI, P.M.; MANZI, G. Analysis of Sustainability Propensity of Bike Sharing Customers Using Partially Ordered Sets Methodology. Social Indicators Research, v. 157, p.123–138, 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02333-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02333-8
NEGEV, M.; GRAB, Y.; BILLER, R.; SAGY, G.; TAL, A. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question. The Journal of Environmental Education, v.41, n.2, p.101–115, 2010. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903295258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903295258
NIERENBERG, D. Correcting gender myopia: gender equity, women’s welfare, and the environment. World Watch Institute. p.68, 2002.Available from: https://books.google.com.bd/books?id=Iuq0AAAAIAAJ&q=danielle+nierenberg&dq=danielle+nierenberg&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&sa=X&redir_esc=y. Accessed on: 12 Feb. 2023.
NAHAR, N.; HOSSAIN, Z.; MAHIUDDIN, S. Assessment of the environmental perceptions, attitudes, and awareness of city dwellers regarding sustainable urban environmental management: a case study of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability. v. 25, p. 7503–7531, 2022. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-022-02354-y. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-022-02354-y
PIDGEON, N.; HENWOOD, K.; IRWIN, A. Science, technology and risk perception: From gender differences to the effects made by gender. Equal Opportunities International, v. 27, p. 662-676, 2008. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150810916730. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150810916730
SHUTALEVA, A., MARTYUSHEV, N.; NIKONOVA, Z., SAVCHENKO, I.; ABRAMOVA, S., LUBIMOVA, V.; NOVGORODTSEVA, A. Environmental Behavior of Youth and Sustainable Development. Sustainability, v.14, n. 1, p.1-26, 2022. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010250
SZABO, S.R.; HAJARA, A.B.; MATTHEWS, Z. Inequalities in human well-being in the urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta. Sustainability v.8, n.7, p.608, 2016. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/8/7/608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su8070608
SCRUGGS, L.; BENEGAL, S. Declining public concern about climate change: Can we blame the great recession? Global Environment Change.v.22, p.505-515, 2012. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.01.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.01.002
SGAR (STATE OF GLOBAL AIR REPORT). 2020. Available from: https://www.stateofglobalair.org/. Accessed on: 11 Feb. 2023.
TOBLER, C.; VISSCHERS, V.; SIEGRIST, M. Consumers’ knowledge about climate change. Climatic Change, v. 114, p.189-209, 2012.Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0393-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0393-1
TSCHAKERT, P. Views from the vulnerable: Understanding climatic and other stressors in the Sahel. Global Environmental Change. v.17, p.381-396, 2007. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.008
WATSON, K.; HALSE, C.M. Environmental attitudes of pre-service teachers: A conceptual and methodological dilemma in cross-cultural data collection. Asia Pacific Education Review. v. 6, n. 1, p. 59-71, 2005. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03024968. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03024968
WB (WORLD BANK). Meeting Bangladesh’s Plastic Challenge through a Multi-Sectoral Approach. 2021. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2021/12/23/meeting-bangladesh-s-plastic-challenge-through-a-multisectoral-approach. Accessed on:13 Feb. 2023.
WB (WORLD BANK). What does green growth mean for Bangladesh? 2022. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2022/06/06/creating-a-green-and-sustainable-growth-path-for-bangladesh. Accessed on: 26 Feb. 2023.
YUSUF, T.B.; RAHMAN, M. Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. v. 135, p. 3–11, 2007. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9710-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9710-6
ZSOKA, A. Consistency and “awareness gaps” in the environmental behaviour of Hungarian companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 16, n. 3, p. 322-329, 2008. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.044. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.044
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The copyright for manuscripts published in Environmental Smoke belongs to the author, with first publication rights for the journal. The published articles are of total and exclusive responsibility of the authors.