ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal <strong>Environmental Smoke</strong> (Publisher of the same name) aims to broaden scientific knowledge within an interdisciplinary approach, by bringing together not only the scientific community but also all of society around the theme of the relationship of the environment with humanity.</p> <p>Conditions for submission: the articles will have to be submitted in the <strong>English language</strong>, and may be submitted at any time of the year. Click on <strong><a href="https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/about/submissions" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Guidelines for authors</a></strong> for accessing the rules of manuscripts presentation and format. Each manuscript (Full Articles, Short Communications, Abstracts) has an exclusive DOI (Digital Object Identifier).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Publication period (quarterly): January-April; May-August; September-December.</p> <p>The Editorial Team of the Journal Environmental Smoke, represented in this issue (September-December) by Karina Massei and Gilivan Fridrich, is pleased to invite you to submit scientific articles of your own for the issue Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021) whose theme is "Principles, innovations and challenges in Environmental Health".</p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Manuscripts of X Iberian Symposium on the Minho River Basin/2021 ("X Simpósio Ibérico Sobre a Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Minho"), will be published in this journal. Please click on </strong><strong>the <a title="Manuscripts guidelines X Symposium Minho River" href="https://aquamuseu.cm-vncerveira.pt/pages/592" target="_blank" rel="noopener">official Symposium website</a>.</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>For template Abstract consults this <a title="Template Abstract - Simpósio Ibérico" href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1bA5pVWqoszAzA7QFPvtx6vvCQTzKCy-m/edit?usp=sharing&amp;ouid=111400928684321924707&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener">link</a>.</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This journal is supported by the Open Journal Systems/Public Knowledge Project (OJS/PKP), with no fees for authors or readers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>NOTE: All authors must provide, within the journal workflow system, the <a href="https://orcid.org/">ORCID</a> link, the international personal digital identifier of researchers.</strong></p> Environmental Smoke en-US ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE 2595-5527 <p><span>The copyright for manuscripts published in <strong>Environmental Smoke</strong> belongs to the author, with first publication rights for the journal. The published articles are of total and exclusive responsibility of the authors.</span></p> COMPOSTING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO REDUCE COMMON WASTE VOLUME IN HOSPITALS https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/156 <p>Composting is an alternative that has been used on a large scale as a tool for sustainability practices, being a form of recycling organic waste that avoids overloading waste in landfills. The process generates an organic compost that can be used to fertilize the soil in gardens and vegetable gardens. The present work aims to show that composting is a viable and safe procedure to use in hospitals. The methodology used was a qualitative bibliographic research, a literature review authors who are reference in the subject, using the databases of academic google and scielo. It is possible to state that the construction of a compost bin aims to dispose of organic waste from the hospital, in areas that do not pose a risk of contamination of this material by microorganisms that pose a risk to the environment or human beings, and should use organic waste from cafeterias and snack bars. These residues pass by the natural process of decomposition (nutrient cycling) so that the final product is an organic compound that can be used in hospital gardens and generate a lower cost for their maintenance, in addition to reducing the use of fertilizers that are potential environmental polluters. Another important factor is the decrease in the occurrence of insects, as they are naturally attracted to areas with the presence of organic matter. Thus, by separating these residues at the generation sites, and directing them to composters, results in a reduction in the occurrence of pests in the entire hospital area, and maintaining a safe environment for patients and employees. It can be concluded that the construction of a program for the reuse of food that is not consumed is important to improve the vision of sustainability in hospitals, making it possible to apply composting in different places, as part of waste management, reducing thus the environmental impact caused by these residues due to the generation and disposal of waste.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sustainability in hospitals. Organic Waste. Composters. Nutrient cycling.</p> Gabrielle Diniz dos Santos Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho Copyright (c) 2021 Gabrielle Diniz Gabrielle Diniz, Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho Gomes Barbosa Filho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 54 55 10.32435/envsmoke.20214254-55 THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE IMPORTANCE IN THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/155 <p>Epidemiological surveillance is a set of actions that provide knowledge, the detection of any changes in determining and conditioning factors in individual and collective health, with a view to recommending prevention and control measures. In the COVID 19 pandemic, these actions to prevent and control dissemination are being effective, from data collection to recommendations for preventive measures and health promotion. The methodology used in this work is a qualitative research, using virtual research tools, Scielo, virtual health library, Datasus, among others. It is possible to state that the SARS-CoV2 pandemic had its spread in several countries and brought relevant impacts to Public Health, in the magnitude and severity of the cases that resulted in post covid deaths and sequelae, both from diseases and injuries to physical and emotional integrity. Being classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an international emergency, currently 575,742 deaths caused by the disease have been reported across the country, with a fatality rate of 2.8%. Epidemiological surveillance is essential to monitor the health and disease process and disseminate results to health agencies, where it is possible to assess the vulnerability and risk factors of populations. This information serves as recommendations for implementing measures to prevent and control diseases and injuries.</p> Alinny Leite Candeia Danielle Noele Feliciano Alves Adellúcia dos Santos Silva Copyright (c) 2021 ALINNY CANDEIA, Danielle Noele Feliciano Alves, Cleber Rodrigues monteiro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 56 57 10.32435/envsmoke.20214256-57 THE PERFORMANCE OF SKIN ADVISORY SERVICES IN THE PREVENTION OF PRESSURE INJURY IN PATIENTS WITH COVID-19 IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/158 <p>The integumentary system is composed of the skin and its appendages, is extremely important in photoprotection, immunology, protection from fluid loss, thermoregulation, production of vitamin D, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, perception of painful and pleasant stimuli and is an indicator of health and illness. The skin in its total integrity defends us from the penetration of microorganisms from the normal flora and from microorganisms from the hospital environment, when it is broken, it loses its protective capacity, leaving patients vulnerable to infections. In the COVID 19 pandemic, we observed an incidence of pressure injuries caused in patients bedridden in ICU beds, due to hemodynamic instability, many of them needed a prone position to facilitate breathing patterns and, therefore, made it difficult to implement prevention techniques, favoring the appearance of pressure injury. Therefore, to carry out this work, qualitative research tools were used in a virtual way, such as manuals, ministerial guides, ANVISA protocols and articles indexed in Scielo. Skin counseling made up of technicians and nurses qualified in the prevention and treatment of injuries, contribute to the implementation of techniques that minimize or eliminate the incidence of pressure injuries, using decubitus change checklist, head and arm repositioning guidelines every 2 hours, placement of pads adapted to pressure areas, hydropolymer and silicone foam (inframammary region, abdominal region, face, jaw and toes), orientations, passive changes in 15º for 15 seconds in the upper and lower limbs, skin hydration in areas without erythema, application of cream based on zinc oxide and dimethicone in regions that are more sensitive to aggression. We observed that with simple preventive measures, we can minimize the appearance of new lesions and deep tissue involvement when the patient is supine. The monitoring of skin counseling together with sector health professionals, engaged in preventive actions, will achieve better results, when compared to the fractional implementation of prevention measures, which is one of the most important tools for dehospitalization, infection control and rehabilitation of patients affected by COVID-19.</p> Adellúcia dos Santos Silva Raisa Barbosa Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Adellúcia Silva, Raisa Barbosa Silva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 58 60 10.32435/envsmoke.20214258-60 ECOLOGIST’S PERFORMANCE IN THE HEALTH SERVICE: HOSPITAL UNITS https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/157 <p>Environmental awareness is emerging in society, and with this, managers, commercial activities, institutions and health services are no different, especially when there are legal environmental requirements related to monitoring and mandatory environmental management for its operation. This fact makes professions linked to environmental monitoring essential for carrying out these jobs in these services. Therefore, the objective of this study is to elucidate the participation of the ecologist working professionally in health services, more specifically in hospital units. The study is characterized as a qualitative research, it does not intend to achieve what is right or wrong, only to understand the reality of its actions and transformations. It was noticed that a hospital management signals as benefits for management the performance of the ecological professional, mainly in the development of actions on environmental issues: Waste from Health Services RSS, preparation of the Health Waste Management plan, monitoring of water quality, monitoring and control of pests and insects, assistance in epidemiological surveillance actions and monitoring and control of hospital infections, composting projects, recycling projects, solidarity economy, and continuing education actions such as training on RSS and biosafety, all of which are fundamental to fostering sustainability within the hospital environment. Considering this, the performance of the ecology professional in health units, innovative in hospital units, this can be an aggregator to the interdisciplinary model to seek environmental improvements considered complex, but that achieve a successfully hospital environmental management.</p> <p> </p> Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho Gabrielle Diniz dos Santos Daniel José Gonçalves Anderson Alves dos Santos Gilberto Costa Teodózio Copyright (c) 2021 Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 1 6 10.32435/envsmoke.2021421-6 TREATMENT OF A TEXTILE WASTEWATER USING AN ELECTROCOAGULATION REACTOR POWERED BY PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/108 <p class="ListParagraph1"><span lang="EN-US">The textil industry uses a variety of dyes in the stage of coloring. The liquid effluent resulting at the end of the process has high turbidity and a large chemical oxygen demand. If these byproducts are dumped into natural water bodies, even in small quantities, they may produce damage to the aquatic environment and to human health. Electrocoagulation is becoming an efficient technique for the removal of pollutants from industrial effluents, it is easy to operate, and produces little sludge at the end of the treatment. In the present study, the use of an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum electrodes proved efficient for turbidity removal from synthetic industrial effluents. The use of a solar plate of photovoltaic electricity for the functioning of the reactor was evaluated. Ideal time of treatment was 20 minutes. The use of a conventional energy source removed 63% of the turbidity. Using the voltaic solar energy source, a removal of 72% of turbidity was attained. We conclude that it is possible to use the alternative solar energy source in order to minimize costs resulting from electrical energy consumption, and, at the same time, to obtain the best results in the removal of pollutants.</span><strong></strong></p> Edson Alves De Jesus Janaina Moreira Meneses Marcos Alexandre Cavalcante de Araújo Martin Lindsey Christoffersen Copyright (c) 2021 Edson Alves De Jesus, Janaina Moreira Meneses, Marcos Alexandre Cavalcante de Araújo, Martin Lindsey CHRISTOFFERSEN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 7 14 10.32435/envsmoke.2021427-14 PERCEPCIONES DE TURISTAS SOBRE BIENESTAR Y ECOTURISMO: EL CASO DE UNA UNIDAD DE CONSERVACIÓN EN EL NORDESTE BRASILEÑO https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/152 <p>Este trabajo de investigación aborda las dinámicas de la actividad turística que acontece en una Unidad de Conservación localizada en el nordeste brasileño. De acuerdo con las concepciones teóricas, este turismo presenta rasgos de Ecoturismo, una vez que se desarrolla en áreas naturales en las cuales se realizan prácticas de conservación del medio ambiente. Para encaminar la investigación, se formuló la pregunta sobre las relaciones existentes entre los hábitos adoptados por los turistas y visitantes de la APA BRM y su búsqueda por el bienestar. Según la hipótesis propuesta por los investigadores de este trabajo, la actividad turística realizada en el APA BRM, promueve el bienestar individual de los turistas que visitan este territorio. Como objetivo general, se propuso analizar las prácticas y hábitos adoptados por los turistas y visitantes del APA BRM. Se observó que grupos con diferentes características e intereses frecuentan este territorio, con finalidades tanto de turismo como de diversión. Como conclusión, se observó el vínculo existente entre el bienestar de los turistas, y su principal motivación para visitar este territorio, a partir de la interacción y la observación del paisaje de este lugar.</p> Carlos Alberto Isaza Valencia Nataly Hernández Galindo George Emmanuel Cavalcanti de Miranda Copyright (c) 2021 Carlos Alberto Isaza Valencia, Nataly Hernández Galindo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 15 25 10.32435/envsmoke.20214215-25 ÉDUCATION PERMANENTE EN SANTÉ FACE AU AFFRONTEMENT DE LA COVID-19 https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/148 <p>Cet article cherche à décrire les principales forces, faiblesses et défis de l’Éducation Permanente en Santé dans un hôpital de référence en COVID-19 dans l’état de Paraíba. Savoir comment s'est mis en place la formulation et la promotion de l’Éducation Permanente en Santé face à la COVID-19 et comment les pratiques éducatives englobent les connaissances en matière d'éducation et de santé, de sorte que des actions telles que la prévention, la protection, la promotion, la réadaptation, les soins palliatifs et pas seulement la guérison de maladies soient bien succédées. Les données de cet article peuvent contribuer à la construction d'actions d'Éducation Permanente en Santé dans l'état de Paraíba.</p> Mário Toscano de Brito Mariana Pereira Gonsalves Bruno da Silva Brito Copyright (c) 2021 Mário Toscano de Brito, Mariana Gonsalves, Bruno da Silva Brito https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 26 33 10.32435/envsmoke.20214226-33 PREVALENCE OF COMMUNITY INFECTION IN THE PEDIATRICS OF A PUBLIC HOSPITAL OF PARAÍBA https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/154 <p>Community infection, despite not being a major concern for health agencies, is a major concern for hospitals, as it can be a risk to already frail patients who come to health services. Therefore, the present study intends to describe the clinical profile and the prevalence of community infections of children residing in Vale do Mamanguape – PB, who were admitted to the pediatrics at the Hospital Geral de Mamanguape – PB. The methodology is a retrospective, exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Data were extracted from electronic and printed medical records of children hospitalized for a period of more than 24 hours, between the months of January 2016 to October 2017, in the pediatric sector of the hospital. The sample included 711 children, of both sexes, aged from 0 to 15 years. The diagnosis of community infection was based on filling out the medical record, in the fields: reason for admission and anamnesis. Data were submitted to the R software, where descriptive and inferential data analysis was performed. In the inferential analysis, the non-parametric Pearson's Chi-Square Test was applied in order to verify the correlation between the dependent variable and the factor variables. Thus, it was observed that 83.5% children were hospitalized for some type of community infection and 16.5% were hospitalized with no infection, the average number of hospitalization days was 4.94 days 44.5% of the children hospitalized were from the municipality of Mamanguape and 55.3% from the other municipalities that make up the Vale do Mamanguape. The most frequent infections were of the respiratory tract 47.11% and gastroenteritis 14.3%. Male children spent more days in hospital than female children with p-value=0.020. It can be concluded that community infections are the most common causes of hospitalization in pediatrics at the Hospital Geral de Mamanguape-PB, respiratory tract infections are the most common in children living in Vale do Mamanguape.</p> Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho Ana Karina Holanda Leite Maia Luiz Medeiros de Araújo Lima Filho Caliandra Maria Bezerra Luna Lima Gabrielle Diniz dos Santos Daniel José Gonçalves Gilberto Costa Teodózio Raquel de Lima Pimenta Copyright (c) 2021 Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho, Ana Karina Holanda Leite Maia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 34 41 10.32435/envsmoke.20214234-41 PERFIL SÓCIO DEMOGRÁFICO DOS PACIENTES ACOMETIDOS PELA COVID- 19 https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/147 <p>A doença do coronavírus, trazida pelo vírus da covid-19, trouxe um impacto muito grande na vida das pessoas em todo o mundo pelo alcance e velocidade com o qual se disseminou (SOUZA, 2020). Segundo a Organização Mundial de saúde (2020), em 31 de dezembro de 2019 foram recebidas as primeiras notificações de casos de pneumonia com suspeita de serem provocados por uma nova cepa de Coronavírus, isso aconteceu na cidade de Wuhan na China. diante disso, o estudo tem por objetivo traçar o perfil sócio demográfico dos pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19, atendidos em um Hospital de Referência no Estado da Paraíba, apresentando por cada região os pacientes contaminados pela COVID 19. Trata - se de uma pesquisa transversal, descritiva e quantitativa, envolvendo indivíduos acometidos pela COVID 19, que foram atendidos no HMDJMP entre os meses de maio a dezembro de 2020. Este estudo pretendeu identificar, dentre os meses de maio a dezembro de 2020, o perfil sócio demográfico dos pacientes com diagnóstico positivo para COVID 19 atendidos no HMDJMP, bem como demarcar a microrregião com maior prevalência de pacientes regulados.</p> Loanda Carla Araújo de Medeiros Maria da Conceição Alves Leal Borges Mariana Pereira Gonsalves Gilberto Costa Teodózio Wesley Moura dos Santos Copyright (c) 2021 Loanda Carla Araújo de Medeiros, Maria da Conceição Alves Leal Borges, Mariana Gonsalves, Gilberto COSTA TEODÓZIO, Wesley Moura dos Santos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 42 48 10.32435/envsmoke.20214242-48 INCREASED PM2.5 LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED INCIDENCE OF COVID-19: THE WASHINGTON WILDFIRES OF 2020 https://environmentalsmoke.com.br/index.php/EnvSmoke/article/view/150 <p>Yakima County, Washington was subject to the extrordinary Washington Wildfire Season of 2020 in which unhealty air (PM2.5) persisted for a 14-day period. This remarkable fire and smoke season began in tandem with the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 virus, like inhaled particulate matter is known to cause respiratory illness or injury. This study sought to determine through publicly available data whether increased levels of PM2.5 were associated with increased cases of COVID-19. Using a 12-day lag analysis, Pearson product correlations were performed between PM2.5 24-hour averages in Yakima County Washington and daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 for data available on March 1, 2020-October 15, 2020. In addition, total running cases of confirmed COVID-19, daily mortality and total running mortality rates were compared in the lag analyses. All days (PM2.5) in the lag analysis were found to have a statistically significant positive correlation with COVID-19 case counts and total running counts of COVID-19 (p&lt;.001) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.24-0.28. The total running mortality rates were also significantly associated with daily PM2.5 (p&lt;.001); however, the daily mortality rates were not found to be statistically significantly related to PM2.5. This simple analysis provides preliminary evidence that increased air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with higher rates of confirmed COVID-19 cases. However, further research is required to determine the potentially confounding factors in this relationship.</p> Casey Mace Firebaugh Tishra Beeson Amie Wojtyna Ryan Arboleda Copyright (c) 2021 Casey Mace Firebaugh, Beeson, Wojtyna, Ryan Arboleda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 4 2 49 53 10.32435/envsmoke.20214249-53